Acute infectious highly fatal viral disease of warm blooded animals,transmitted in the saliva of rabid animals and usually manifested by afatal encephalomylitis with clinical signs of mania,inability to swallow and by aprogressive ascending paralysis begin from hind limbs and move forward to the trunk and fore limb .
Rabiesvirus is aneurotropic single - stranded RNA,neurotropic classified as Lyssa virus - family Rhabdoviridae.Different strains are antigenically similar,so polyvalent vaccines are not required.
Rabies virus as it is an enveloped viruses, so it is susceptible to most standard disinfectant and dies in dried saliva in afew hours and easily killed by sunlight and boiling.It is inactivated by most standard disinfectant ,but it is relatively resistant to phenol.
Rabies virus has worldwide distribution ; it is endemic in almost countries. Few countries are fre from the disease as australia, New Zeland,British Islands, Hawaii, Cyprus and Japan.
Source of infection
Rabid animals which excrete the virus in their saliva 2-5 days before they show clinical signs and though out the course of the disease especially stray ones.
All mammals were susceptible to rabies virus infection ; all carnivorous and bates are the primary vector species, cattle and other domestic animals become infected after the bites from infected vectors.
Bats are the most important species in which muliplication of the virus without invasion of the nervous system is known to occur in its fatty tissue.Wild Carnivorous are the main reservoir.
Economic importance of the disease
Rabies of great zoonotic importance with amajor ocupational hazard for veterinarians. It is not of major economic importance in farm animals although fatalities may occur.
IP is 3-8 weeks and some times longer up to few months , the length of IP depends on : Site of bite,Severity of bite and dose of virus inoculated .
The disease is sporadic , the fatality rate reaches up to 100%
The course of the clinical disease takes 7 - 10 days
Ther are three clinical phases ,prodromal,furious [Excitative] and paralytic [Dump] .
If the excitative phase dominates, it is known as [Furius rabies ], but if paralytic phase dominates it is known as [dumb rabies ]
Non specific broken teeth and presence of forign bodies such as stones and pieces of m*etal in dog`sstomach is indicative of the depraved appetite of the dog.