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    29-12-2011 01:33 صباحا

    Mastitis -- inflammation of the mammary gland caused by microorganisms, usually bacteria, that invade the udder, multiply, and produce toxins that are harmful to the mammary gland.


    :Clinical Mastiti:-- visible signs of mastitis which includes



    [*]Mild signs flakes or clots in the milk, may have slight swelling of infected quarter.


    [*]Severe signs secretion abnormal, hot, swollen quarter or udder; cow may have a fever, rapid pulse, loss of appetite, dehydration and depression; death may occur.
    Subclinical Mastitis -- no visible signs of the disease:

    Somatic cell count (SCC) of the milk will be elevated



    [*]Bacteriological culturing of milk will detect bacteria in the milk.


    [*]Causes the greatest financial loss to dairy farmers through lowered milk production.


    [*]For every clinical case of mastitis, there will be 15 to 40 sub-clinical cases.

    Somatic Cell Count (SCC) -- the number of leukocytes or white blood cells per milliliter of milk.


    [*]Normal milk will have less than 200,000 cells per milliliter.


    [*]An elevated SCC is an indication of inflammation in the udder.



    Effects on Milk Production, Composition and Quality





    Mastitis reduces milk yield and alters milk composition. The magnitude of these changes in individual cows varies with the severity and duration of the infection and the causative microorganisms. Mastitis is almost always caused by bacteria. These microorganisms produce toxins that can directly damage milk-producing tissue of the mammary gland, and the presence of bacteria initiates inflammation within the mammary tissue in an attempt to eliminate the invading microorganisms. The inflammation contributes to decreased milk production and is primarily responsible for the compositional changes observed in milk from infected quarters and cows. In general, compositional changes involve an increase in blood components present in milk and a decrease in normal milk constituents.



    Development of Mastitis


    A basic knowledge of mammary gland anatomy and physiology is necessary to understand how mastitis develops. The interior of each quarter is composed of a teat cistern, gland cistern, milk ducts, and glandular tissue (Figure 2-A). The glandular tissue or secretory portion contains millions of microscopic sacs called alveoli (Figure 2-B). Each alveolus is lined with milk-producing epithelial cells and is surrounded by muscle cells that contract and squeeze milk from the alveolus during milking. Blood vessels bring nutrients to each alveolus where epithelial cells convert them into milk. Between milkings, milk accumulates in the alveolar spaces, milk ducts, and cisterns. During milking, the accumulated fluid is removed through the teat ducts.



    Invasion of the Udder


    Mastitis results once bacteria pass through the teat duct and multiply in milk-producing tissues. Microorganisms breach the teat duct in several ways. Between milkings, microorganisms may pass through the teat duct by multiplying inside the duct, or by physical movement resulting from pressure placed on the teat end as the cow moves about. During machine milking, microorganisms may be propelled into or through the teat duct into the teat cistern.



    The potential for invasion is greatly increased by bacteria that reside in or colonize the teat duct. Such colonizations occur in both lactating and dry cows, and the colonizing bacteria may survive for months, serving as sources of bacteria for infecting the gland. The practice of dipping teats with an effective bacteriacide both before and after each milking greatly reduces teat duct colonization.



    To better understand the important difference among mastitis causing organisms, the following list summarizes contagious and environmental mastitis.



    Contagious Versus Environmental Mastitis,
    Understanding the Difference
    Controlling Contagious Mastitis


    Caused by:

    [*]
    Streptococcus agalactiae (S. agalactiae)
    Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus)
    Streptococcus dysgalactiae (S. dysgalactiae)


    Primary source:

    [*]
    Udders of infected cows.

    m*ethod of spread:


    [*]
    From infected quarters to other quarters and cows primarily at milking time.

    Indicators of problem:


    [*]Bulk tank somatic cell count (SCC) above 300,000 cells/ml.


    [*]DHIA SCC score above 3.2.


    [*]More than 15% of cows with a DHIA SCC score of 5 or greater.


    [*]Frequent flare ups of clinical mastitis, often in the same cows.


    [*]Bacterial culturing of cows shows S. agalactiae and/or S. aureus infections.

    Control recommendations:


    [*]Develop program to prevent the spread of bacteria at milking time.


    [*]Eliminate existing infections by treating all cows at drying off and culling chronic cows.

    Goals:


    [*]Eradicate S. agalactiae from the herd.


    [*]Reduce S. aureus infections to less than 5% of the cows in the herd.





    Ygjihf hgqvu fhghfrhv - Mastitis


    29-12-2011 01:35 صباحا
    مشاهدة مشاركة منفردة [1]
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    تاريخ الإنضمام : 28-12-2011
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    look/images/icons/i1.gif إلتهاب الضرع بالابقار - Mastitis
    Controlling Environmental Mastitis

    Caused by:

    Coliforms



    [*]
    Escherichia coli



    [*]
    [*]
    Klebsiella pneumoniae



    [*]
    Klebsiella oxytoca



    [*]
    Enterobacter aerogenes

    Environmental streptococci


    [*]
    S. uberis




    [*]
    S. bovis



    [*]
    S. disgalactiae



    [*]
    Enterococcus faecium



    [*]
    Enterococcus faecalis



    Primary source:


    [*]
    The environment of the cow.

    Indicator of problem:


    [*]
    High rate of clinical mastitis, usually in early lactation or during hot weather. Somatic cell count may be low (less than 300,000).

    Control recommendations:


    [*]
    Reduce the number of bacteria to which the teat end is exposed.




    [*]
    Improve cleanliness of cow surroundings, especially in late dry period and at calving.



    [*]
    Improve prepping procedures to ensure clean, dry teats are being milked.

    Goal:


    [*]
    Reduce clinical mastitis to less than 3% of the milking cows/month.



    Controlling Contagious Mastitis





    [*]
    Milk clean, dry teats.




    [*]
    Keep liner slips to a minimum.



    [*]
    Teat dip with an effective germicidal teat dip. Maintain milking system.

    Eliminating infections:


    [*]
    Treat all quarters of all cows at drying off with antibiotic products specifically designed for dry cow therapy.




    [*]
    Cull chronically infected cows.



    [*]
    Steps to follow to control mastitis and lower somatic cell count:



    [*]
    Teat dip.



    [*]
    Dry cow treat.



    [*]
    Practice proper milking procedure.



    [*]
    Use properly functioning milking system.



    [*]
    Maintain clean, dry environ ment for the cows.



    [*]
    Cull chronic mastitis cows. Use DHIA SCC program to monitor mastitis in the herd.


    Controlling Environmental Mastitis



    Prevention:

    [*]
    Reduce the number of bacteria to which the teat end is exposed.

    Environment:


    [*]
    Cow environment should be as clean and dry as possible.




    [*]
    Cow should not have access to manure, mud, or pools of stagnant water.



    [*]
    Dry cow environment is as important as lactating cow environment.



    [*]
    Calving area must be clean.



    [*]
    Properly design and maintain free stalls.

    Bedding:


    [*]
    Bacteria numbers in bedding depends on available nutrients, amount of contamination, moisture, and temperature.




    [*]
    Inorganic materials (such as crushed limestone or sand) are low in nutrients and moisture, and thus bacteria.



    [*]
    Finely chopped organic bedding (such as sawdust, shavings, recycled manure, pelleted corncobs, various seed hulls, chopped straw) are frequently high in bacteria numbers.

    Teat dipping:


    [*]
    Post milking teat dipping with a germicidal (germ-killing) dip is recommended.




    [*]
    Controls the spread of contagious mastitis.



    [*]
    Exerts no control over coliform infections.



    [*]
    Barrier dips are reported to reduce new coliform infections; however, they do not appear to be as effective against environmental streptococci and the contagious pathogens.



    [*]
    Attempts to control environ mental mastitis during the dry period, using either germicidal or barrier dips, have been unsuccessful.

    Dry cow therapy:


    [*]
    Recommended for all quarters of all cows at drying off.




    [*]
    Helps control environmental streptococci during the early dry period.



    [*]
    Has little or no value in controlling coliforms.



    [*]
    Not effective during the period prior to calving.

    Backflushing milker claws between cows:



    [*]
    Will not control environmental mastitis.


    29-12-2011 01:37 صباحا
    مشاهدة مشاركة منفردة [2]
    د/ على عبدالرحمن
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    معلومات الكاتب ▼
    تاريخ الإنضمام : 28-12-2011
    رقم العضوية : 1
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    look/images/icons/i1.gif إلتهاب الضرع بالابقار - Mastitis
    Proper milking procedure:

    [*]
    Proper milking procedure is important.





    [*]Wash teats, but not the udder.



    [*]Clean and dry teats before attaching the milking machine.



    [*]Milking wet udders will likely increase mastitis.
    Predipping:



    [*]A germicidal teat dip reduces environmental mastitis during lactation by 50%.


    [*]


    [*]Be sure teat dip is removed from teats before attaching milking machine to prevent contamination of the milk.

    Milking machine:




    [*]Maintain and operate properly.


    [*]


    [*]Badly functioning milking machines result in frequent liner slips and teat end impacts will increase environmental mastitis.

    Nutrition:


    [*]
    Proper nutrition will reduce the risk of environmental mastitis.





    [*]Adequate levels of Vitamin E and selenium reduce the incidence of environmental mastitis.



    [*]There are conflicting reports whether Vitamin A and ß- carotene influence udder health.



    [*]Ongoing research at the University of Kentucky indicates that copper may play a role in maintaining the immune system in dairy cattle.



    [*]Feed dairy cattle a balanced ration.
    Proper Milking Procedures


    Proper milking procedures are important for the prevention of mastitis and for ensuring complete milk removal from the udder.



    Cow Movement. Cows should be moved in a quiet, gentle manner. If cows are frightened or hurried, the milk letdown process may be disturbed, so avoid rough handling.



    Mastitis Detection. Milking may begin with a check of all quarters for mastitis. It is acceptable to strip milk onto the floor in a milking parlor or flat barn. Any cows that show clinical mastitis should be examined and appropriate a*ction taken. If fore milking is not done, visual checking for inflamed quarters is done by milkers and herd health people.



    Udder Preparation. The object of udder preparation is to ensure that clean dry udders and teats are being milked. Single service paper towels or washed and dried cloth towels may be used.



    Premilking Teat Dip. The procedure for predipping involves washing teats with water and a sanitizer. The teats are then dried with an individual towel and dipped or sprayed with the sanitizer. A 30-second contact with sanitizer is needed to kill organisms. Then the sanitizer is wiped dry with the towel. The cows are milked and teats are dipped with the same type of sanitizer to prevent chemical rea*ctions that could cause irritation to teats.



    Predipping may be beneficial in reducing mastitis, but the actual dipping, dip contact time, and wiping with a towel increase the total milking time. If the dip is not wiped off, excessive chemical residues in milk may occur. If contact time is not sufficient, then it is a very expensive premilking regime.



    Milking Unit Attachment and Detachment. To attach the milking unit to the teats, apply the cluster allowing a minimum of air admission and adjust to prevent liner slip. Air entering the unit may cause the propulsion of mastitis organisms from one infected teat into a noninfected teat. This may also happen when one teat cup is removed before the others.



    Machine stripping usually is not needed on dairy cows. Machine stripping should not take more than one minute, and no air should be allowed to enter the teat cups while this is being done. A downward force applied to the cluster while massaging the udder with the other hand is all that is needed.



    Following milk-out, the machine should be removed only after the vacuum to the teats is shut off. This is accomplished most commonly by use of a vacuum shut off valve or milk hose clamp which prevents the backjetting of bacteria from one teat to another.



    Use of Backflush. Backflushers have been developed to sanitize the liners and claws between milkings. Most units on the market have four or five cycles. The first cycle is a water rinse, followed by an iodine or similar sanitizer rinse, a clear water rinse, and positive air dry cycle.



    Research has demonstrated that backflushers do reduce the number of bacteria on the liners between cows, but do not reduce the number of bacteria on teats. Backflushers also may stop the spread of contagious organisms, but this can also be accomplished at a much lower cost by teat dipping. There is no effect on environmental pathogens that are encountered between milkings.



    Teat dips are effective against all mastitis organisms. They have been shown to effectively reduce mastitis caused by S. aureus and S. agalactiae, the most common types of mastitis found.



    There seems to be much controversy about the effectiveness of teat dipping on environmental pathogens E. coli and S. uberis. Some research has shown that teat dipping does not control these organisms. These pathogens are found in the cows surroundings; if there is udder-deep mud, the teat dip will be removed and a new infection may occur.



    There are many effective teat dips, including iodine at 0.1%, 0.5%, and 1.0%, and chlorhexidine at 0.5%. Also, although it is not labeled for teat dipping, hypochlorite at 4.0% with a sodium hydroxide content less than 0.05% was effective in field trials. There are many more teat dips on the market that are effective in preventing new infections. Effective coverage of the teats is more important than the type of dip being used.



    If contagious bacteria, S. agalactiae, S. dysgalactiae, S. aureus, or Mycoplasma, is present in your herd you must dip the whole teat to the b*ase of the udder to stop the spread. Wand sprayers are acceptable for herds that have environmental mastitis, since teat colonization is not a factor. Hand-held spray bottles are the most ineffective m*ethod of getting proper coverage of dip on the cows teats, so they should not be used. Dip cups, on the other hand, give the best coverage.




    29-12-2011 01:38 صباحا
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    look/images/icons/i1.gif إلتهاب الضرع بالابقار - Mastitis
    Dry Cow Therapy. Dry cow treatment is administered after the last milking of the cow before the dry period. Care must be taken to scrub the teat end with cotton and alcohol before infusion and to use teat dip after infusion.


    There are many antibiotics available for dry cow therapy. High levels of penicillin and dihydrostreptomycin, the cloxacillins and other products specifically for dry treatment are effective.


    Dry period therapy has been accepted because antibiotics can be put into a slow release b*ase that allows them to stay in the udder longer. They are not constantly being milked out of the udder as is the case with lactation therapy. Antibiotics can be given in higher quantities because there is no concern for milk levels and antibiotic residues.


    While dry treatment is very effective, it must be administered properly and dry cows must have favorable environmental conditions. Teat ends must be scrubbed clean with cotton alcohol pads before injecting the dry treatment. If the teat ends are not cleaned properly, you may inject very high numbers of bacteria into the udder which would overwhelm the antibiotic just administered. Unsanitary treatment procedures cause rather than eliminate mastitis.


    Management of dry cows is very important in mastitis control. If dry cows are exposed to muddy or dirty conditions, risk of mastitis will increase. This is especially true at calving time; cows are under much stress during this period. If an udder is exposed to wet dirty conditions, mastitis will increase. If you believe that your dry cow therapy program is ineffective, it may be because of poor treatment procedures and/or improper management of the cows during the dry period and at calving.


    Culling. Culling cows for mastitis is effective in eliminating mastitis in the herd. Cows that have been treated many times in a single lactation are prime candidates for culling, as they may no longer be profitable because of discarded milk and antibiotic costs. it is usually more profitable to carry out preventive mastitis control procedures and cull only old chronic cows rather than try to control mastitis by routine culling.



    Proper Treatment Procedures

    In every program, some medication is required, plus dry cow treatment protocol. This is especially important with intramammary infusions. Extreme care must be taken whenever anything is being infused into a cows udder. Careless treatment procedures can result in udder infections resistant to treatment. Approach treatment in the same way a surgeon approaches surgery.




    [*]
    [*]
    Wash hands with soap and water.




    [*]
    Wash teats and udder in sanitizing solution.




    [*]
    Thoroughly dry teats and udder with individual towels.




    [*]
    Dip teats in an effective germicidal teat dip.




    [*]
    Allow 30 seconds of contact time before wiping off teat dip with an individual towel.




    [*]
    Thoroughly scrub the teat end with a cotton swab soaked in alcohol. If all four quarters are being treated, start by cleaning the teat farthest from you and work toward the closest teat.




    [*]
    Use commercial antibiotic products in single dose containers formulated for intramammary infusion. For dry cow therapy, use commercial antibiotic products specifically formulated for dry cow therapy in single dose containers. Treat teats nearest to you first, then those farthest away to prevent contaminating clean teat ends.




    [*]
    Insert only the tip of the canula into the teat end. Do not allow the sterile canula to touch anything prior to infusion.




    [*]
    After infusion, remove canula, squeeze teat end with one hand, massage antibiotic up into the quarter with the other hand.




    [*]
    Dip teats in an effective germicidal teat dip after treatment.




    How to Collect Milk Samples

    Even the most successful milking management program needs to culture samples when problems arise. Positive identification of invading organisms can speed up solutions to difficult challenges. When taking samples, it is imperative that you take a sample that is not contaminated for accurate lab analysis.


    [*]
    Label sterile tubes and fill out forms ahead of time. (Tubes with screw caps are preferred.)




    [*]
    Wash hands in soap and water.




    [*]
    Wash teats in sanitizing solution.




    [*]
    Dry teats with individual towels.




    [*]
    Discard one or two squirts of milk from each teat.




    [*]
    Dip teats in germicidal teat dip.




    [*]
    Allow 30 seconds of contact time before wiping off teat dip with an individual towel.




    [*]
    Thoroughly scrub the teat end with a cotton swab soaked in alcohol. If a composite sample is being taken from all four quarters, start with the teat farthest from you and work toward the closest teat. Use a clean swab on each teat.




    [*]
    Open the sterile tube under the teats. Hold it at an angle so that foreign material cannot fall into the opening. Do not allow anything to come in contact with the mouth of the tube. Collect one or two squirts of milk from each quarter, starting with the closest quarters and working toward the ones farthest away.




    [*]
    Close the container before removing it from beneath the teats.




    [*]
    Refrigerate samples until they reach the lab. If samples will not reach the lab within 24 hours, they should be frozen and kept frozen until they reach the lab.




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